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Christianity: History (Early church history found in early Christian writings)

Christianity: History (Early church history found in early Christian writings)

It is not difficult to enumerate ways in which Christianity changed over its early history. A challenge will be found, however, in the fact that these changes were so extensive that it is impossible to discuss them all in a short essay. At any rate, during the period between the death of Jesus and the late fourth century, the early church underwent vast changes in its attitudes, beliefs, structure, and social position.

Changes in attitudes and beliefs could be seen, for example, in Christianity’s stance towards Jewish law. Of course, Jesus himself was Jewish, as were his earliest followers. The Jesus movement understood itself as Jewish from the very beginning (Ehrman, After NT 95). Thus, the earliest followers of Christ continued to follow the commandments of the Torah, as can be seen in Matthew 5:19, where Jesus is quoted as saying that whoever breaks “the least [emphasis added]of these commandments . . . will be called least in the kingdom.” Taken at face value, this injunction by Jesus would imply that his followers were to keep even kashrut laws and the law of circumcision. Eventually, however, other views were to prevail. A good example of these views is provided by Paul’s letter to the Galatians, in which adherence to the Jewish law of circumcision was not only depicted as useless, but was said to render “Christ . . . of no benefit” (Gal. 5:2) to the Galatians. Likewise, The Epistle of Barnabas, by means of allegorical interpretation, does away with the literal observance of kashrut laws (Chapter 10).

Eventually, this new attitude towards Torah law would spill over into hostilities towards the “Jews” themselves. I put “Jews” in quotations to emphasize the retrospective nature of this Christian label of Jesus’s Jewish detractors, which ignored the fact that his early supporters were also Jewish (Shepardson 01/26/12). This change in attitudes toward Jews and Jewish law paralleled the Jesus movement’s transition from being an apocalyptic Jewish sect to a universal movement which aimed to draw in “Gentile” converts throughout the Hellenistic Roman Empire (Ehrman/Jacobs 2-3).

Christian attitudes towards women also changed dramatically during the first century of its history. Christian writings dated to the middle of the first century depict egalitarian gender attitudes, naming women among the “prominent . . . apostles” (Rom. 16:6), and even overlooking gender distinctions altogether (Gal 3:28). By the end of the first century, however, the proto-orthodox strain of Christianity was becoming male-dominated, as evidenced by their language of female “submission” (1 Tim 2:11) and “obedience” (1 Clement 1:3). It is likely that the earliest Christian gender conceptions were considerably more progressive than those of the surrounding culture. Paul’s naming of women as prominent apostles within the Christian ???????? (Ekklesia) would have given women a position of authority and importance never found, for example, in the ???????? of Athenian democracy, which included only males—granted, Athenian democracy ended before Christianity ever came on the scene, but the Roman empire was likewise male-dominated. Thus the increasingly male-dominated gender attitudes of Christianity may have partially reflected a movement towards assimilation within its sociocultural milieu (Shepardson 01/26/12). Christianity would continue to assimilate into the surrounding culture, and after the conversion of Constantine would begin to overlap “directly with the political concerns of Roman emperors” (Ehrman/Jacobs 4).

One factor contributing to early Christianity’s increasing enmeshment with surrounding social and political structures was that the apocalyptic fervor of earliest Christianity—apparent, for example, in Mark 8:38 – 9:1, where Jesus is talking about his return, and then seems to suggest that this would occur during the lifetimes of some members of his audience—dwindled over the years, as the apocalypse failed to materialize (Shepardson 01/26/12). These two developments helped to fuel the increasing institutionalization of the Christian church. Although in Matthew 23:8-11, Jesus is depicted as proscribing the use of honorary titles, such as “father” or “teacher”, the institutionalization of Christianity was effected largely through the establishment of titles and offices (Ehrman/Jacobs 129), such as “?????????” (“bishop”, literally “overseer”). Amazingly, as much as the nascent movement railed against the religion from whence it originated, it in certain ways almost modeled itself after the hierarchical Levitical system, going so far as to call the ????????? “the high priest” (Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, Chapter 30).

Along with the proliferation of clerical titles and offices came a drive towards greater uniformity, both in doctrine and praxis. Attempts at ritual uniformity played a role in proto-orthodox Christianity’s process of self-definition. For example, the Didache delineates a boundary between one sort of ingroup and outgroup by saying, “[The hypocrites] fast on Mondays and Thursdays; but you should fast on Wednesdays and Fridays” (Didache 8:1). Doctrinal uniformity came to have even greater importance for separating the true believers from the “heretics”. While second and third century Christian beliefs were extremely diverse, with a number of different “Christianities” (Ehrman, New Testament 1) thriving in an uneasy “state of plurality” (Ehrman/Jacobs 155), by the late fourth century, the proto-orthodox Christians wielded such influence within the Roman political system that writings of contradictory Christianities were proscribed (Ehrman, After NT 132), as were many “traditional Roman religious practices” (Ehrman/Jacobs 4). It is a great tragedy that the long process of canon formation culminated in the annihilation of a vast body of religious literature that was at odds with the literature of the proto-orthodox Christians (Ehrman, After NT 194). This seems an incalculable loss to scholarship and to humanity overall.

So by the end of the fourth century, the social position of the Christian church was the opposite of what it had been in the first through third centuries. Once a scorned minority, “lashing out” (Ehrman, New Testament 423) against larger opponents, such as non-Christian Jews, they had become the “high and mighty” (Ehrman, New Testament 423), and joining them was fashionable and even advisable (Ehrman, New Testament 424).

So from its attitudes and beliefs about Jewish law, to its increasingly institutionalized structure, to the 180 degree turn-around in its social position, Christianity underwent many drastic changes indeed between the mid-first and late fourth centuries.

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Business Management Case Study; Franchise Arbitration Clauses

Business Management Case Study; Franchise Arbitration Clauses

It is very common in franchising for the franchisor to put an arbitration clause in the franchising agreement and the generally it is very easy to see if a Franchisor has done this, because it will appear on the very first page of the 250 page Uniform Franchise Offering Circular or UFOC. In fact, if a Franchisor has put this into his franchise agreement then chances are he will also pick the city and state in which the arbitration must be held. The choice of venue is not recognized in all states but usually it is.

Many franchisees are upset with this giving away of their rights for civil litigation once a dispute erupts. Generally when they signed a franchise agreement it sounds fair to give away their rights to sue in trade for arbitration. Franchisees say things such as; "I would love to be able to present my case in a civil court any where in the country. To my amazement, this is not allowed. I’m forced to arbitrate."

Executive management teams in franchising need to decide these clauses in advance and they need to consult with a good franchising attorney to decide if this is in their best interest, although they must realize that franchising attorneys make money from litigation and generally do not make so much money from arbitration.

And therefore due diligence is required on the part of the Franchisor and of course if you are a franchisee you’ll want to think about this in advance of signing away your rights to litigation. Please consider all this in 2006.

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Essay Writing Kills You?

Essay Writing Kills You?

The word Essay is defined as "a literary composition on any subject." Properly speaking, it is a written composition giving expression to one’s own personal ideas or opinions on same topic. It should be good to remember that the word essay means, literally, an attempt. The essays you write at school are trial exercises or "attempts" to express your thoughts in good English.

Now, what are the points we should keep in mind for writing a good essay?

1) Unity-An essay must be a unity, developing one theme with a definite purpose. The subject must be clearly defined in the mind and kept in view throughout. Nothing that is not relevant to it should be admitted to the essay.

To sum up, an essay must be a unity, treating in an orderly manner of one subject; it should be concisely written and not too long, and the style should be simple, direct and clear; and it should have individuality, or reflect the personal touch of the writer.

Three features necessary in a good essay are-1) suitable subject matter,2) proper arrangement and 3) adequate power of expression. Point 3 is applicable to most forms of writing like writing short stories, reviews, and reports.

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UNDERSTANDIN YOUR WORK AS WRITER IS IMPORTANT- Ways to understand your work as a writer.

UNDERSTANDIN YOUR WORK AS WRITER IS IMPORTANT- Ways to understand your work as a writer.

When you do not understand your work as a writer, it mostly becomes difficult even to publish your work because you do not have confidence your own ideas. Moreover, when you do not know what you are doing, you lose confidence in yourself and in your writing and you cannot publish. That what happens if you do not understand your work? Sometimes you lose the confidence to write because it gets to a point that you do not understand what you are doing.

Enjoying the writing process

Understanding your work as a writer and the writing process itself is very important in helping you to enjoy your work and to be more productive in your work as writer. When you understand every single stage in the writing process, you will be more confident and happy as you write. You will be on focus because you know exactly what you are doing.

Becoming productive in writing.

You will also be productive because you will then understand that every ideas that comes out of you no matter unrelated it may be to your current discussion, can recycled or used as a supplementary ideas in another article. This should make you more productive in writing. You will be able to also escape the writer’s block and enjoy the writing process. You will understand that every idea is perfect can make sense in the appropriate context.

You get to improve faster

If you understand your work, you will be able to notice your own strengths and weaknesses on the job. You get to notice also your main areas of interest and you get to improve faster and on each writing assignment.

Simple easy ways of writing and still make sense to readers.

You get to know the gradual simple steps in coming up with ideas. You can make your writing interesting with the necessary shortcuts in coming up with ideas that will still make sense to readers.

You get to have more writing contracts.

You get to have other people hiring your services when you understand your work well. When you understand your work, potential clients get to have confidence in you. You therefore gain more writing contracts such as block writing, newspaper and magazine (article writing and editing), writing for blogs and websites, secretarial jobs, transcriptions jobs etc.

When you understand your work well, it always reflects in your works or projects. As you are aware that readers can sometimes be potential clients hiring your services. When understand your work, you will be able to reflect this in your work. In other words, your great skill as writer would also be reflected in your published projects hence open up writing opportunities for you.

Understanding your work as a writer also helps you to understand and communicate well with your clients. You get to know the minds of your potential clients and what they are likely to expect from you as an expert. Potential clients are able to notice your experience in the job through your works and through business negotiation with you. You can only communicate well with your potential clients when you know your job well and have experience.

You can therefore understand your work by following the guidelines elaborated below.

Get advanced education in writing

In order to have much more confidence in your work as a writer, you can study that in school or choose a university program that relates to your profession as a writer. When you get advance education in writing, you will get the chance to meet other people who also share your interesting. You would be able to improve your writing faster as you have the opportunity to study or work with people who have interest in your profession of interest. Getting advance education in your professional of interesting helps you to maintain focus. You are able to value or respect your profession and compete well in the profession. You also get to have your thoughts and ideas on the profession or topics confirmed by knowledgeable and respectable lecturers. This then gives you confidence in your work.

The confidence that you gain from getting advance education in writing urges you on. It helps you to preserver.

Read books on article writing.

You could also study on your own by reading books and materials on article writing. When you read books on article writing, you will learn new ways of discussing your ideas and arranging the. You will get know the experiences of other writers and apply them to your own to help you improve in writing. You will get to understand yourself and your style of writing and develop new ways of writing. This should make arranging your ideas easy and interesting. Reading books and articles about writing gives you the confidence to write.

You should also read more about your topics of interest. This should help you write well and give you the confidence to write more about your topics. You will learn new ways and patterns of discussing your topics of interest.

Listen to radio discussion Programs.

Listen to radio discussion programs for writers. There are special radio discussion programs specifically for writers on the BBC world services. You will get to participate as well as learn about the experiences of other writers. As you get to listen to renowned writers share their experience on popular channels as well as listen to other writers participate in the discussion, you gain the confidence to write as you also share their experience.

You should also listen to radio or TV discussion or documentaries about your topic of interesting. You will be able to understand your topics well. Understanding your own topic of discussion is the fastest possible means of understanding writing. It can be really be difficult to understand the whole concept to for writing when you are writing on several topics. When you focus on one main topic of interesting and develop ideas related to your topic, you can quickly learn the shortcuts to writing. You can then apply the concept to all other topics hence making writing easier.

Share ideas with other article writers.

Learn new ways and ideas in writing your articles from other professional writers. Connect with other writers on social networks and learn new ideas from them. You should also share your ideas with them in order to understand your own ideas better. Sharing ideas is the best way to learn more.

Write more to have more experience.

You should write more in o5rder to have more experience in your job. When you write more and are able to utilize the new ways of writing, you get to learn more ideas. Writing more brings you confidence and experience by helping you understand the concept of writing. You also get the chance to break your work down into simple achievable tasks to make your work easy and interesting.

Please feel free to give your comment and suggestions below. You can also contact me if you want to write articles for your blogs, website or for any proof reading service. Contact me for also advice and tutorials on SEO or how you can upgrade your website in order to gain more traffic.

Please feel free to give your comment and suggestions below. You can also contact me if you want to write articles for your blogs, website or for any proof reading service. Contact me for also advice and tutorials on SEO or how you can upgrade your website in order to gain more traffic.

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The Most Common Types of Sources in a Research Paper

The Most Common Types of Sources in a Research Paper

To find out more about the topic that you decided to pursue in your research paper, a good review of literature will help you narrow it down as well as point out the gaps in knowledge. The internet offers a lot of free information sparing you the added burden of spending too much on paid subscriptions to access articles in a scientific journal.

Here are common types of online sources that beginning and veteran researchers alike use in strengthening the arguments of their research paper.

1. Government websites

Government websites provide information for the benefit of the general public. Therefore, those tasked to publish information in government websites make sure that the information is truthful to avoid misleading the public. Government sites are good sources of information on demographics, legal matters, business, among others.

2. Academic sites

Websites attached to it means that these are websites of colleges or universities. Since schools are meant to educate, various checks are made to ensure that the information provided to the public is reliable.

6. Use encyclopedic sources like Wikipedia

There are researchers who avoid citing Wikipedia because it is largely user-generated and thus generally unreliable. While there may be wisdom in this contention, the references provided in Wikipedia can be good leads to reliable information. You can always cross check the information with other references.

7. Researchers’ blogs

Researchers’ blogs can provide useful information as recognized experts in their field. Well-known researchers usually respond positively when students request complimentary copies of their research paper published in reputable scientific journals.

While online sources are good sources of information, exploring your study area, making critical observations, or talking with people can provide valuable insights. There is no substitute to personal encounter or interaction.

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Critical Thinking and How it is an Effective Way to Write Essays

Critical Thinking and How it is an Effective Way to Write Essays

Critical thinking is the evaluation of information so that a logical and well informed choice can be made on a decision. In essence this means not acting on a piece of information until the source of that information can be validated and verified. I started using critical thinking when I started a degree in business and management, business as a rule runs on informed decisions and many businesses coach their management on the uses and applications of critical thinking to actually improve their effectiveness in the running of the business. In an academic environment the ability to use critical thinking can be a important part of how you learn.

For example, using critical thinking in a discussion can help you construct an argument by using facts to back up your opinion on a particular subject. This would allow you to put across your point by evaluating the facts and constructing an argument using primary and maybe even secondary sources, which will show what you are basing your opinion on reasoned argument rather than just putting a point forward solely based on personal opinion. I believe the best application in the academic world is essay writing, starting from other people’s opinions or facts, and bringing them together to create your own conclusion on the subject and expressing it in a written form. It is now more important in the academic world to try a teach students not only the facts and figures, In addition to also trying to help them understand that an important part of the working world is to be able to hold back from reaching a decision until all information has been collated and considered. For example, on preparing to write this article I have been to many different sources on the Internet to try and get a better understanding of the subject, by doing this I have a better appreciation and can write a more accurate description rather than just writing about my own opinion on the subject. In a way there is a role in every part of the academic process, from researching of material to interacting in learning related discussions.

Students should always be encouraged to try and use critical thinking; even choosing the right reference for an essay can prove the critical thinking abilities of an individual, the ability to analyze the importance of a reference can help with development of cognitive skills which will allow them to make better decisions in a work place environment. When it comes to essays each part is broken into sections and you normally begin with a subject of some description, firstly critical thinking will allow you to start looking at other people’s opinions and ability to comment critically on these opinions whether for or against them can be a large part of any successful assignment. In conclusion critical thinking is a way of thinking about a problem or situation using fact and not opinion as a way of forming your own opinion and making reasoned decisions. Both in the academic world and in the workplace there are examples of situations in which critical thinking is beneficial. It is also useful to back up a opinion with intellectual and informed research rather than just relying on illogical facts.

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